Popular questions

The 20 most common questions about choline

Where to buy choline bitartrate?

Inadequate choline may result in fat and cholesterol buildup in your liver (4, 5). DNA synthesis: Choline and other vitamins, such as B12 and folate , help with a process that’s important for DNA synthesis. A healthy nervous system: This nutrient is required to make acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter.

Why does choline smell fishy?

The smell had decreased after puberty, but she still noticed a strong fishy smell around the time of her menstrual periods and when she was eating a choline -rich diet, such as fish and eggs. The smell had disappeared after menopause. Primary trimethylaminuria (fish odour syndrome) was suspected.

Can choline reverse fatty liver?

Choline was shown to completely reverse fatty liver in a small study of participants who had the disease. Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine or TMG, is a cheap and effective supplement that helps the body spare choline . Folate, in its methylated form, may also help, along with B6.

What choline does for the body?

Related to the B vitamins, such as folate and B 12 , choline plays many essential roles in the body. Notably, it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, as well as lecithin, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks.

Why choline with inositol?

Choline is similar to inositol in its functions in the body. It is an intermediary in the production of an important neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. It aids in the regulation of homocysteine- a compound whose elevated levels are associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.

Can choline help autism?

Choline deficiency during pregnancy is now under investigation as a possible cause of autism . Low choline intake impairs the structure, motility, and energy of sperm. For adults as well as children, choline is essential for neurotransmitter synthesis.

Are choline and inositol b vitamins?

Related to the B vitamins , such as folate and B 12 , choline plays many essential roles in the body. Notably, it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, as well as lecithin, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks.

Which choline is best for liver?

Types and Sources of Choline Choline is an essential nutrient and the liver is a central organ responsible for choline metabolism. These advances are useful in elucidating why non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs and progresses sometimes to hepatocarcinogenesis.

Can choline cause depression?

They can also include depression and electrocardiographic problems. Choline may cause depression in some people.

Can choline deficiency?

The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms. In fact, in an experiment, 10 women were fed a diet low in choline . Nine developed fatty liver and only one had elevated liver enzymes.

Where can choline be found in food?

Eggs, liver, and peanuts, are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods , pasta, rice, and egg-based dishes (77). Spinach, beets, wheat, and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

Can choline help you lose weight?

It helps reduce belly fat and reduce bloat that contributes to cellulite and water weight gain. Along with choline and inositol, methionine is a lipotropic agent that helps transport fat. The human body is not able to manufacture methionine by itself making supplement use a must.

Where is acetylcholine produced?

Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA. Cholinergic neurons are capable of producing ACh. An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in the basal forebrain.

Cholinesterase?

Purpose. Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase . Cholinesterase breaks apart the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is vital for the transmission of nerve impulses. This is the normal function of cholinesterase .

Why choline is important?

Inadequate choline may result in fat and cholesterol buildup in your liver (4, 5). DNA synthesis: Choline and other vitamins, such as B12 and folate, help with a process that’s important for DNA synthesis. A healthy nervous system: This nutrient is required to make acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter.

Which vitamin does choline contain?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins . It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ , and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Can choline make you constipated?

Besides diverticulosis, the excessive bowel transit time associated with constipation can contribute to such bowel disorders as irritable bowel syndrome and colitis. In addition, studies suggest that constipation may indirectly cause estrogen to be reabsorbed.

Where did choline?

Enjoy liberally of these choline-rich foods: Inadequate choline intake can also lead to fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( NAFLD ). The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis . Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms.

Can choline cause miscarriage?

The adequate intake (AI) for choline is 450 milligrams per day during pregnancy . It’s estimated that up to 95% of pregnant women consume less choline during pregnancy than what’s recommended. Most prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements contain little, if any choline .

Why is choline polar?

Due to its polar nature, the head of a phospholipid is attracted to water (it is hydrophilic). The nonpolar head is not attracted to water and is said to be hydrophobic. When placed in water, phospholipids form a bilayer, where the hydrophobic tails line up against each other.

What are choline esters?

choline esters . a group of cholinergic drugs that act at sites or organs where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter. Examples include bethanechol, carbachol, and methacholine.

Why is choline not considered a vitamin?

Choline , while closely related to the B complex family of vitamins , is not truely considered a vitamin since researchers cannot agree on any common definitions of deficiency symptoms. Choline’s most vital role may lie in its activity in the brain and central nervous system.

Are choline supplements vegan?

Choline is found in a wide range of plant foods in small amounts. Eating a well-balanced vegan diet with plenty of whole foods should ensure you are getting enough choline . Eating less than 50 mg/day can result in liver damage, but it is very unlikely that a vegan would have such a low intake.

How choline salicylate works?

What Is Choline Salicylate -Magnesium Salicylate ? Choline magnesium trisalicylate is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. This medicine is also used to reduce fever in adults.

Can choline cause dizziness?

Large amounts (about 20 g) of choline may cause other side effects. These can include dizziness , low blood pressure (hypotension), and fishy body odor. Choline may cause depression in some people.

Choline which b vitamin?

Vitamin B 4 : can refer to the distinct chemicals choline , adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but not sufficiently to maintain good health, and is now considered an essential dietary nutrient. Adenine is a nucleobase synthesized by the human body.

How choline helps the body?

Related to the B vitamins, such as folate and B 12 , choline plays many essential roles in the body . Notably, it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, as well as lecithin, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks.

Can choline cause weight gain?

Most weight – loss supplements contain caffeine, which increases the metabolic rate. This practice is not healthy, since caffeine also causes nervousness, insomnia, nausea and increased blood pressure. The amine choline is a member of the vitamin B-complex family and it is naturally produced by the body to burn fat .

What are choline and inositol?

Inositol in depressed mood and anxiety disorders. Inositol is a member of the B family of vitamins and is synthesized in the body in the form of myo- inositol . Inositol is the precursor of phosphatidyl inositol , a second messenger molecule required for normal nerve cell function.

When to take choline with aniracetam?

Aniracetam is considered to be up to 10-times more potent than Piracetam. As an ampakine nootropic, it helps increase attention span, alertness and boosts memory. Ampakines tend to have a stimulant effect. But do not produce the same stimulant side effects as Ritalin or coffee from prolonged use.

Choline sources?

Eggs , liver , and peanuts , are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat , poultry , fish , dairy foods, pasta, rice, and egg -based dishes (77). Spinach , beets, wheat , and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

What is choline inositol?

Inositol and choline may be beneficial for a variety of mental health problems. Posted Sep 25, 2017. Inositol in depressed mood and anxiety disorders. Inositol is a member of the B family of vitamins and is synthesized in the body in the form of myo- inositol .

How much choline in lecithin?

Lecithin extracts, which comprise a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids, are often added during food processing. Lecithins in processed food have been estimated to increase the daily consumption of phosphatidylcholine by about 1.5 mg/kg of body weight for adults (27).

Choline where to buy?

Eggs, liver, and peanuts, are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, pasta, rice, and egg-based dishes (77). Spinach, beets, wheat, and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

Which choline with piracetam?

Your body uses choline to make acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays an essential role in memory and learning. One of the ways that Piracetam enhances cognitive function is by increasing acetylcholine production. So Piracetam and choline together are a powerful combination.

Which choline to buy?

Types and Sources of Choline Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, Huntington’s chorea, Tourette’s disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.

How much choline during pregnancy?

The adequate intake (AI) for choline is 450 milligrams per day during pregnancy . Needs increase during lactation to 550 milligrams per day. It’s estimated that up to 95% of pregnant women consume less choline during pregnancy than what’s recommended.

Where is choline acetyltransferase located?

The CHAT gene provides instructions for making a protein called choline acetyltransferase . This protein is located at the ends of nerve cells in specialized areas called presynaptic terminals. Choline acetyltransferase facilitates the production of a molecule called acetylcholine.

Choline which foods?

Eggs , liver , and peanuts , are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat , poultry , fish , dairy foods , pasta , rice , and egg -based dishes (77). Spinach, beets , wheat , and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

Can choline make you tired?

Types and Sources of Choline Choline is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods and available as a dietary supplement. In addition, choline is needed to produce acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions [1-3].

When to take choline with piracetam?

Types and Sources of Choline Piracetam should be administered orally, and may be taken with or without food. The tablet(s) should be swallowed with liquid. It is recommended to take the daily dose in two to four sub-doses.

How much choline in peanuts?

Enjoy liberally of these choline-rich foods: Eggs, Milk and Chocolate. One large egg contains about 120 milligrams of choline , while 1 cup of skim milk contains 38 milligrams. Dried egg yolk is particularly high in choline , with nearly 1,400 milligrams in a 100-gram serving.

Can choline cause headaches?

Types and Sources of Choline Doses over the Daily Upper Intake Levels (see dosage section below) are more likely to cause side effects such as sweating , a fishy body odor , gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea , and vomiting . There is some concern that increasing dietary choline intake might increase the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum.

Are choline and lecithin the same?

Lecithin is considered an excellent source of choline , one of the B vitamins. Once in the body, a key component of lecithin –phosphatidylcholine–breaks down into choline . Now available in dietary supplement form, phosphatidylcholine (PC) might be thought of as a purified extract of lecithin .

How choline works?

Notably, it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, as well as lecithin, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks. Choline is essential for brain development in the fetus.

Where does choline bitartrate come from?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Where is choline absorbed in the body?

Free choline , phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine are absorbed in the small intestine, enter the portal circulation, and are stored in the liver, where they are subsequently phosphorylated and distributed throughout the body to make cell membranes [1-3].

Why choline deficiency?

Along with folate and B12 deficiency , inadequate consumption of choline can lead to high homocysteine and all the risks associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, such as cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric illness (Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia) and osteoporosis.

What choline is vegan?

Vegetarians can get some choline in eggs and milk products. And there are several plant-based sources of choline (see chart below), including legumes, tofu, green vegetables, potatoes, nuts, seeds, grains, and fruit—all of which contain some amounts of choline .

Choline how to use?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins . It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Where does choline chloride come from?

Choline chloride is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. Choline chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt with choline cation and chloride anion.

Where to get choline supplement?

Enjoy liberally of these choline-rich foods: Inadequate choline intake can also lead to fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( NAFLD ). The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms.

Where does choline come from?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ , and eggs.

Where is choline absorbed?

The water-soluble choline -derived compounds ( choline , phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) are absorbed via the portal circulation whereas the lipid-soluble compounds (phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) present in foods are absorbed into lymph as chylomicrons via the thoracic duct.

Will choline help with weight loss?

It helps reduce belly fat and reduce bloat that contributes to cellulite and water weight gain. Along with choline and inositol, methionine is a lipotropic agent that helps transport fat . The human body is not able to manufacture methionine by itself making supplement use a must.

Can choline cause hair loss?

Its deficiency in diet suppresses hair growth , can lead to telogen effluvium, thin white and brittle hair and cause hair fall [32], especially in women using diuretic drugs. Iron deficiency has been associated with hair loss as in alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia, and telogen effluvium [33].

Why take choline?

Notably, it is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, as well as lecithin, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks. Choline and lecithin, it’s claimed, reduce blood cholesterol and heart disease.

Why is choline water soluble?

WATER – SOLUBLE VITAMINS. Choline , inositol and ascorbic acid are required in appreciable quantities in the diet and sometimes are not referred to as vitamins but as major dietary nutrients.

Why choline for pregnancy?

During pregnancy , it is also important for proper spinal cord formation and early brain development. It’s estimated that up to 95% of pregnant women consume less choline during pregnancy than what’s recommended. Most prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements contain little, if any choline .

Which choline supplement?

Types and Sources of Choline It is also involved in healthy liver function, nerve function, and muscle movement, as well as supporting energy levels and maintaining a healthy metabolism . One of the primary functions of choline is helping brain cells in the production of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for mental focus and learning.

Who discovered choline?

Choline was first isolated by Adolph Strecker from pig and ox bile (Greek: ????, chole) in 1862. When it was first chemically synthesized by Oscar Liebreich in 1865, it was known as neurine. In 1898 neurine was shown to be chemically identical to choline.

Where to buy choline in australia?

Supplements vs. Foods Doses over the Daily Upper Intake Levels (see dosage section below) are more likely to cause side effects such as sweating , a fishy body odor , gastrointestinal distress , diarrhea , and vomiting . There is some concern that increasing dietary choline intake might increase the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum.

Can choline lower cholesterol?

Choline claims: yes, no, maybe. Choline and lecithin, it’s claimed, reduce blood cholesterol and heart disease. But studies have yielded inconsistent results, and some have actually found that they can boost LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and trigylcerides.

Can choline cause anxiety?

Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study. BACKGROUND: Despite its importance in the central nervous system as a precursor for acetylcholine and membrane phosphatidylcholine, the role of choline in mental illness has been little studied.

How much choline is too much?

Too Much Can Be Harmful. Consuming too much choline has been associated with unpleasant and potentially harmful side effects. These include drops in blood pressure, sweating, fishy body odor, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting (65). The daily upper limit for adults is 3,500 mg per day.

Choline how long?

In humans choline bitartrate increases choline blood plasma levels within 1 hour after ingestion [57, 58] and with brain concentrations peaking around 2 hours until at least up to 3 hours after ingestion [59, 60].

How much choline in eggs?

Just one egg yolk contains about 115 mg of choline . In traditional cultures women ate 5-7 egg yolks daily during pregnancy! Pastured eggs should be included whenever possible, as they contain a superior nutrient profile.

Who should take choline supplements?

An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily . Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day ; pregnant women, 450 mg per day .

What choline does for you?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease , including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis .

What are choline supplements used for?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins . It can be made in the liver . It is also found in foods such as liver , muscle meats, fish , nuts , beans , peas, spinach , wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Will choline give you diarrhea?

Choline may cause a stomach ache, diarrhea , or loose stools. This can happen at normal doses. Large amounts (about 20 g) of choline may cause other side effects. These can include dizziness, low blood pressure (hypotension), and fishy body odor.

Where to buy choline chloride?

Its other functions include prevention of abnormal fat accumulation, and as precursor of acetylcholine synthesis. Choline chloride is sometimes used as a supplement in human nutrition. Choline chloride is also effectively replacing potassium chloride in oil and gas industry, where it is used as a clay stabilizer.

How much choline in 1200 mg of lecithin?

The usual recommended dosage for recurrent plugged ducts is 3600-4800 mg lecithin per day , or 1 capsule (1200 milligram) 3-4 times per day . After a week or two with no blockage, mom can reduce the dosage by one capsule. If there is no blockage within another 2 weeks she can reduce it again by one .

Can choline help fatty liver?

Recent findings. Humans eating low choline diets develop fatty liver and liver damage,. Importantly, the intricate connection between liver function, one carbon metabolism, and energy metabolism is just beginning to be elucidated.

Choline how much to take?

An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnan An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day.

Why is choline bad for you?

Getting too much choline can cause a fishy body odor, vomiting, heavy sweating and salivation, low blood pressure, and liver damage. Some research also suggests that high amounts of choline may increase the risk of heart disease.

Where is choline found in eggs?

The humble egg . Just two hard-boiled eggs provide 250 to 300 mg of choline . And the yolk is the key! If you’re eating an egg -white omelet for breakfast, you’re missing out on the vital nourishment the yolk has to offer, including choline .

Can choline help tinnitus?

Choline in tinnitus . The finding of a GABA deficit in tinnitus patients is beyond a homeostatic response to hearing loss, underscores the importance of GABA systems in the pathophysiology of tinnitus , and may help to direct future treatments.

Why is choline chloride in dog food?

However, because of its affinity for moisture, choline chloride is also the culprit in vitamin losses in premixes. For this reason, vitamin suppliers vehemently discourage customers from including choline chloride as part of their premix because of the reduced vitamin retention during storage.

What’s choline chloride?

Choline chloride is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. It is a chloride salt and a quaternary ammonium salt. It contains a choline .

What is choline chloride in dog food?

Choline chloride is a source of the essential B vitamin choline that naturally occurs in animal and plant sources, especially in eggs, liver, fish, meats, soybeans, and wheat germ.

Why is choline a water soluble vitamin?

Water – soluble vitamins include eight well-recognized members of the vitamin B complex: thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B 12 ; the water – soluble essential nutritional factors: choline , inositol, ascorbic acid; and vitamins with less-defined activity for fish: p-

Can choline cause insomnia?

Choline is particularly important for fetuses during pregnancy. In addition, choline may help prevent memory loss associated with aging, protect against liver damage, help lower cholesterol, protect against cancer, or relax muscles.

What choline means?

Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine in 1998. Its role in the body is complex. It is needed for neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine), cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction).

Are there choline supplements?

Choline claims: yes, no, maybe. Related to the B vitamins, such as folate and B 12 , choline plays many essential roles in the body. It’s often claimed that choline or lecithin supplements help prevent memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and various neurological disorders, but evidence is lacking.

What is choline bitartrate used for?

Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression , memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, Huntington’s chorea, Tourette’s disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.

What is choline salicylate?

Choline salicylate belongs to a group of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It’s similar to, but not the same as aspirin. It works by blocking the action of an enzyme in the body called cyclo-oxygenase (COX). The prostaglandins cause pain, swelling and inflammation.

How much choline in sunflower lecithin?

Lecithin is considered an excellent source of choline , one of the B vitamins. Once in the body, a key component of lecithin – phosphatidylcholine –breaks down into choline . Now available in dietary supplement form, phosphatidylcholine (PC) might be thought of as a purified extract of lecithin .

Why take choline with piracetam?

Symptoms of general excitability, including anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headache, agitation, nervousness, tremor, and hyperkinesia, are occasionally reported. Other reported side effects include somnolence, weight gain , clinical depression, weakness, increased libido, and hypersexuality.

Which choline during pregnancy?

Choline is especially important in pregnancy for the development of the baby’s hippocampus, which is an area of the brain connected to memory. In a small study, women were given choline during the last trimester of pregnancy , one group was given 480 mg choline and the other group was given 930 mg per day.

What choline esters?

choline esters. a group of cholinergic drugs that act at sites or organs where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter. Examples include bethanechol , carbachol , and methacholine.

What choline foods?

Eggs , liver , and peanuts , are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat , poultry , fish , dairy foods , pasta, rice , and egg -based dishes (77). Spinach , beets , wheat, and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

What are choline supplements made from?

Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts , beans , peas, spinach, wheat germ , and eggs .

What are choline supplements?

Choline is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods and available as a dietary supplement . In addition, choline is needed to produce acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions [1-3].

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